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Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is available to people whose disabilities prevent gainful employment. In order to be eligible, an individual must not have greater than $2,000 in countable resources and less than approximately $800 in monthly income. Because the income and resources of parents are counted until the child turns 18, many people with disabilities will not qualify for SSI until they have reached the age of 18. After age 18, the income and resources of family members are not counted even if the individual continues to live at home. The SSI benefits usually ranges between $450 and $650 per month. The monthly among depends on a number of factors, including where the person lives and what other income he or she may have.

Individuals who qualify for SSI automatically receive Medicaid. Medicaid pays for a wide array of services for people with disabilities and provides government-funded health insurance for children and adults with disabilities who have limited financial resources. Medicaid also provides government funding for long-term services and supports, including institutional care in nursing facilities and, in some cases, in non-specialized placements for people with disabilities.

Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) pays benefits to covered workers who are unable to work because of a disability. After two years, the worker qualifies for Medicare. SSDI is typically given to workers who sustain injuries; however, sometimes, people with lifelong disabilities or mental illness qualify because of work history and experience a subsequent problem with continued employment.

Social Security benefits are available to disabled dependents of a parent who collects Social Security benefits or who dies. Individuals who receive Social Security also receive Medicare. Social Security benefits count as income for SSI purposes and, in some cases, can reduce or eliminate SSI benefits.